Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)

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Tetralogy of Fallot is a rare and intricate congenital heart condition, often referred to as TOF. This condition arises from the presence of four specific heart defects in combination, all of which are present at birth.

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    The Four Key Defects Comprising TOF Are:

    Pulmonary Stenosis: This condition occurs when the pulmonary valve, which controls blood flow from the heart to the lungs, is narrowed. Pulmonary stenosis restricts the blood flow to the lungs, preventing it from getting adequately oxygenated.

    Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD): VSD is a hole in the wall (septum) separating the two lower chambers (ventricles) of the heart. It allows oxygen-poor blood from the right ventricle to flow into the left ventricle, where it mixes with oxygen-rich blood.

    Overriding Aorta: In TOF, the aorta, the main artery that carries oxygenated blood to the body, is not properly positioned. It straddles both the left and right ventricles rather than arising solely from the left ventricle.

    Right Ventricular Hypertrophy: Due to the increased workload of pumping blood through the narrowed pulmonary valve, the right ventricle becomes thicker and more muscular over time.

    Symptoms and Risk Factors:

    Symptoms of Tetralogy of Fallot are primarily related to inadequate oxygen supply to the body. These symptoms can include blue-tinged skin (cyanosis) and shortness of breath. Infants and children with TOF may have “tet spells,” during which they experience severe cyanosis, become very irritable, and struggle to breathe.

    Risk factors for TOF include exposure to viral illnesses such as rubella (German measles) during pregnancy, maternal alcoholism, or a family history of the condition.


    Treatment for Tetralogy of Fallot typically involves surgical intervention, which is typically performed within the first year of life. The exact timing of surgery may vary depending on the individual’s condition and health. Surgical procedures aim to correct the defects, including widening the narrowed pulmonary valve, closing the VSD, and repositioning the aorta. These corrective surgeries help improve oxygen-rich blood circulation.

    Ongoing medical care and follow-up are essential to monitor the heart’s function and address any potential complications. In some cases, additional surgeries or procedures may be required as the child grows.

    In conclusion, Tetralogy of Fallot is a complex congenital heart condition characterized by four specific defects, which can significantly impact oxygenated blood flow in the body. Early diagnosis, surgical correction, and long-term medical management are key components of a comprehensive approach to managing this condition and improving the quality of life for individuals with TOF.

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      Dr. Aseem Ranjan Srivastava

      Dr. Aseem Ranjan Srivastava

      Specialist:       Pediatric Cardiologist
      Experience:    20+ years of experience
      Hospital:         Artemis Hospital

      About Doctor:

      • Dr. Aseem Ranjan Srivastava is associated as senior consultant of Paediatric cardiology and Cardiac surgery wing at Artemis Hospital, Gurgaon.
      • Dr. Aseem Ranjan Srivastava is trained in Congenital Cardiac Surgery at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (2012-13) and The Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC (2011-12)
      • Possess extensive experience of 20+ years in Paediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery. Read More

      Artemis Hospital

      Artemis Hospital Gurgaon

      • Artemis Hospital, established in 2007, spread across 9 acres, is a 600plus bed; state-of-the-art multi-speciality hospital located in Gurgaon, India.
      • Artemis Hospital is the first JCI and NABH accredited hospital in Gurgaon.
      • Designed as one of the most advanced hospitals in India, Artemis provides a depth of expertise in the spectrum of advanced medical & surgical interventions, a comprehensive mix of inpatient and outpatient services. Read More
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